# Himachal Pradesh Board 10thSyllabus 2024

HP Board 10th Syllabus 2024: Himachal Pradesh Board 10th Syllabus covers all the important subjects and topics that are required for any student to understand the basics.

The subjects which a student has to study in the HP Board 10th Syllabus are given below:-

• Hindi
• English
• Mathematics
• Science and technology
• Social Science

Elective Subjects in HP Board 10th Syllabus:

For elective subjects in HPBOSE 10th Syllabus 2024, students can select any one subject from both groups II (A) and II (B) respectively.

Group II (A)

• Urdu
• Panjabi
• Telugu
• Tamil
• Sanskrit

Group II (B)

• Economics
• Agriculture
• Automobiles
• Art
• Physical Education
• Music
• Financial Literacy
• Telecom
• Home Science
• Commerce
• Healthcare
• Introductory Information Technology (Computer Science I.T)
• BFSI (Banking, Finance Service & Insurance)
• Security
• Media & Entertainment
• Retail
• Information Technology Enabled Services
• Tourism

Himachal Pradesh Board 10th Exam Pattern

Mathematics

Unit No

Unit Name

Marks

1

Number Systems

06

2

Algebra

20

3

Coordinate Geometry

06

4

Geometry

15

5

Trigonometry

12

6

Mensuration

10

7

Statistics & Probability

11

Total

80 Marks

HP Board 10th Syllabus Mathematics:

1. Real Numbers:- Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic – statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Euclid’s division lemma, Proofs of results – irrationality of √2, √3, √5, decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals

2. Algebra:- Polynomials – Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials, Zeros of a polynomial, Statement, and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.

Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

1. Pair of linear equations in two variables and graphical method of their solution, consistency/inconsistency.
2. Algebraic conditions for many solutions: Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically – by substitution, by elimination and cross multiplication method, Simple situational problems, and simple problems on reducible to linear equations.

Quadratic Equations:- a. The standard form of a quadratic equation ax2+bx+c=0, (a ≠ 0), Solution of the quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization, by completing the square and by using the quadratic formula, Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. b. Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day-to-day activities to be incorporated.

Arithmetic Progressions:- Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems.

3. Coordinate Geometry - Lines (In two-dimensions) – Concept of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations, Distance formula, Section formula (internal division), Area of a triangle

4. Geometry:- Triangles

Definitions, examples, and counterexamples of similar triangles.

• Prove of If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
• Motivate of If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
• Motivate of If the corresponding angles are equal in two triangles, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
• Motivate of If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar
• Motivate of If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar
• Motivate of If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and each other
• Prove of The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on their corresponding sides
• Prove of In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides
• Prove of In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right triangle.

Circles

Tangents to a circle motivated by chords drawn from points coming closer and closer to the point.

• (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
• (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to circle are equal

Constructions

• Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally)
• Tangent to a circle from a point outside it
• Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle

5. Trigonometry

Introduction To Trigonometry:- Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 0° and 90°. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30°, 45°, and 60°, Relationships between the ratios.

Trigonometric Identities:- Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1, only simple identities to be given, Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.

Heights and Distances:- Simple and believable problems on heights and distances, Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation/depression should be only 30°, 45°, and 60°.

6. Mensuration

Areas Related to Circles:- Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter/circumference of the above-said plane figures. (In calculating the area of a segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to the central angle of 60°, 90°, and 120° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilateral, and circles should be taken).

Surface Areas and Volumes:-

1. Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres, and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone
2. Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems

7. Statistics and Probability

• Statistics - mean median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph
• Probability - Classical definition of probability, Simple problems on single events (not using set notation)

HPBOSE 10th Syllabus Science – Exam Pattern 2024

Unit No

Unit Name

Marks

1

Chemical Substance - Nature and Behaviour

25

2

World of Living

23

3

Natural Phenomena

12

4

Effects of Current

13

5

Natural Resources

07

Total

80 Marks

HP Board Class 10th Syllabus for Science:

1. Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour

Chemical Reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation, and reduction.

Acids, Bases, and Salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH– ions, General properties, examples, and uses, the concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), the importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.

Metals And Non-metals: Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.

Carbon Compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds, versatile nature of carbon, Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes, and alkynes), the difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, and addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents

Periodic Classification Of Elements: Need for classification, early attempts at classification of elements (Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.

2. World of Living

Life processes: ‘Living Being’, the basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport, and excretion in plants and animals.

Control and Co-Ordination in Animals and Plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones;

Control and Co-Ordination In Animals: Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary, and reflex action; Chemical Co-Ordination: animal hormones.

Reproduction: Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need and methods of family planning, Safe sex vs. HIV/AIDS, Childbearing, and women’s health.

Heredity and Evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.

3. Natural Phenomena

Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, center of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.

Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index, Refraction of light by the spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification, Power of a lens.

Functioning of a lens in the human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses, Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.

4. Effects of Current

Effects Of Current: Electric current, potential difference, and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, the parallel combination of resistors, and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I, and R.

Magnetic Effects Of Current: Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current-carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on the current-carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left-Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction. The induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Electric Generator, Direct current. Alternating current: frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.

5. Natural Resources

Sources Of Energy: Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water, and tidal energy; Nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources of Energy.

Our Environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production, and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.

Management Of Natural Resources: Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wildlife; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation in the conservation of natural resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.

HPBOSE 10th Syllabus English – Exam Pattern

There are three sections in the HP board Class 10 English subject:-

• Writing Skills with Grammar,
• Literature Textbook and Extended Text Reading

Section – A

20 Marks

Section – B

Writing Skills with Grammar

30 Marks

Section – C

Literature Textbook and Extended Reading Text

30 Marks

Total

80 Marks

English – Section A

 Factual Passage A Factual passage that consists of 300-350 words with eight Very Short Answer Type Questions. Discursive Passage A Discursive passage consists of 350-400 words with four Short Answer Type Questions to test inference, evaluation, and analysis, and four MCQs to test vocabulary.

English – Section B

 Letter Writing Formal letter complaint / Inquiry / Letter to the editor / placing order / article in about 100-120 words. All the questions will be thematically based on the prescribed books. To write a Short Story Students have to write a short story based on the given outline or cue/s in about 150-200 words. Grammar The Grammar syllabus incorporates the following: Tenses Use of passive voice Modals (have to/had to, must, should, need, ought to and their negative forms) Subject-verb concord Reporting Commands and requests. Statements. Questions. 6. Clauses: Noun clauses Adverb clauses of condition and time Relative clauses 7. Determiners 8. Prepositions Gap Filling Gap filling will be asked with one or two words to test Prepositions, Articles, Conjunctions, and Tenses. Sentence Editing Editing or omission. Sentences reordering or Sentence Transformation in context

English – Section C

 Four VSAQ’s One out of the two extracts from prose/poetry/play for reference to context. Four SAQ’s Questions from the Literature Reader to examine the local and global comprehension of theme and ideas (30-40 words each) One LAQ’s One out of the two long answer types of questions to check how the values inherent in the text have been brought out. Creativity, imagination, and extrapolation beyond the text and across the texts will be checked (100-120 words). One VLAQ’s (Should choose any one from the two questions) Question on theme or plot involving the interpretation, inference, and character, in about 200-250 words based on the prescribed novel text for extended reading.

Social Science – Exam Pattern

Unit No

Unit Name

Marks

1

India and the Contemporary World – II

20

2

Contemporary India – II

20

3

Democratic Politics – II

20

4

Understanding Economic Development

20

Total

80 Marks

HP Board Class 10th Syllabus for Social Science:

History

India and the Contemporary World – II

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe:

• The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation
• The Making of Nationalism in Europe
• The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848
• The Making of Germany and Italy
• Visualizing the Nation
• Nationalism and Imperialism

Nationalism in India:

• The First World War, Khilafat and Non - Cooperation
• Differing Strands within the Movement
• Towards Civil Disobedience
• The Sense of Collective Belonging

The Making of a Global World:

• The Pre-modern world
• The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)
• The Interwar Economy
• Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-War Era

The Age of Industrialization:

• Before the Industrial Revolution
• Hand Labour and Steam Power
• Industrialization in the colonies
• Factories Come Up
• The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth
• Market for Goods

Print Culture and the Modern World:

• The First Printed Books
• Print Comes to Europe
• The Print Revolution and its Impact
• The Nineteenth Century
• India and the World of Print
• Religious Reform and Public Debates
• New Forms of Publication
• Print and Censorship

Geography

• Resources and Development: Types of Resources
• Development of Resources
• Resource Planning in India
• Land Resources
• Land Utilization
• Land Use Pattern in India

Measures

• Soil as a Resource
• Classification of Soils
• Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

Forest and Wildlife

• Biodiversity or Biological Diversity
• Flora and Fauna in India
• Vanishing Forests
• Asiatic Cheetah: Where did they go?
• The Himalayan Yew in trouble
• Conservation of forest and wildlife in India
• Project Tiger
• Types and distribution of forests and wildlife resources
• Community and Conservation

Water Resources:

• Water Scarcity and The Need for Water Conservation and Management
• Multi-Purpose River Projects and Integrated Water Resources Management
• Rainwater Harvesting

Agriculture:

• Types of farming
• Cropping Pattern
• Major Crops
• Technological and Institutional Reforms
• Impact of Globalization on Agriculture

Minerals and Energy Resources

What is a mineral?

• Mode of occurrence of Minerals
• Ferron’s and Non-Ferrous Minerals
• Non-Metallic Minerals
• Rock Minerals
• Conservation of Minerals
• Energy Resources
• Conventional and Non-Conventional
• Conservation of Energy Resources

Manufacturing Industries:

• Importance of manufacturing
• Contribution of Industry to National Economy
• Industrial Location
• Classification of Industries
• Spatial distribution
• Industrial pollution and environmental

Life Lines of National Economy:

• Transport - Roadways, Railways, Pipelines, Waterways, Airways
• Communication

Democratic Politics

Power Sharing:

• Case Studies of Belgium and Sri Lanka
• Why power sharing is desirable?
• Forms of Power Sharing

Federalism:

• What is Federalism?
• What makes India a Federal Country?
• How is Federalism practiced?
• Decentralization in India

Democracy and Diversity:

• Case Studies of Mexico
• Differences, similarities, and divisions
• Popular Struggles in Nepal and Bolivia
• Politics of social divisions

Gender, Religion, and Caste:

• Gender and Politics
• Religion, Communalism, and Politics
• Caste and Politics

Popular Struggles and Movements:

• Mobilization and Organization
• Pressure Groups and Movements

Political Parties:

• Why do we need Political Parties?
• How many Parties should we have?
• National Political Parties
• State Parties
• Challenges to Political Parties
• How can Parties be reformed?

Outcomes of Democracy:

• How do we assess democracy’s outcomes?
• Accountable, responsive, and legitimate government
• Economic growth and development
• Reduction of inequality and poverty
• Accommodation of social diversity
• Dignity and freedom of the citizens

Challenges to Democracy:

• Redefining democracy

Economics

Development:

• What Development Promises - Different people have different goals
• Income and other goals
• National Development
• How to compare different countries or states?
• Income and other criteria
• Public Facilities
• Sustainability of development

Sectors of the Indian Economy:

• Sectors of Economic Activities
• Comparing the three sectors
• Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors in India
• Division of sectors as organized and unorganized
• Sectors in terms of ownership: Public and Private Sectors

Money and Credit:

• Money as a medium of exchange
• Modern forms of money
• Loan activities of Banks
• Two different credit situations
• Terms of credit
• Formal sector credit in India
• Self Help Groups for the Poor

Globalization and the Indian Economy:

• Production across countries