College Disha
/

UP GNM Exam Syllabus

UP GNM Exam Syllabus

UP GNM Syllabus 2022:

§  Physics

§  Chemistry

§  Biology

§  Zoology

UP GNM Syllabus for Physics

Physics And Measurement

·         Physics, technology, and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units

·         Least count, accuracy, and precision of measuring instruments,

·         Errors in measurement,

·         Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis, and its applications

Kinematics

·         Frame of reference

·         Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed, and velocity

·         Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed, and instantaneous velocity

·         Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion.

·         Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector

·         Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion

Laws Of Motion

·         Force and Inertia,

·         Newton’s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion.

·         Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.

Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications

Work, Energy, And Power

Work is done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work-energy theorem, power

 

The potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Rotational Motion

·         Centre of a mass of a two-particle system, Centre of the mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; the moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; a moment of inertia, the radius of gyration.

·         Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

·         Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion

Gravitation

·         The universal law of gravitation.

·         Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

·         Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.

·         Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential.

·         Escape velocity.

·         Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites

Properties Of Solids And Liquids

·         Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s Law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity.

·         Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications.

·         Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli’s principle and its applications.

·         Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension – drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

·         Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat.

·         Heat transfer-conduction, convection, and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling

Thermodynamics

·         Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, the concept of temperature.

·         Heat, work, and internal energy.

·         First law of thermodynamics.

·         Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes.

·         Carnot engine and its efficiency.

Kinetic Theory Of Gases

·         Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.

·         Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, the concept of pressure.

·         Kinetic energy and temperature: RMS speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro’s number

Oscillations And Waves

Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. – Kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance

 

Wave motion - Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, a reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound

Electrostatics

Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

-Electric flux, Gauss’s law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.

-Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, a combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.

Current Electricity

·         Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.

·  Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, the combination of cells in series and in parallel.

·         Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications.

·         Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge.

·         Potentiometer – principle and its applications.

Magnetic Effects Of Current And Magnetism

·         Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

·         Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. The force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

·         Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic substances.

·         Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

Electromagnetic Induction And Alternating Currents

·         Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.

·         Self and mutual inductance.

·         Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattles current.

·         AC generator and transformer

Electromagnetic Waves

·         Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

·         Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays).

·         Applications of e.m. waves

Optics

Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics

·         wavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double-slit experiment, and expression for fringe width.

·         Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.

·         Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane-polarized light and Polaroids.

Dual Nature Of Matter And radiation

·         Dual nature of radiation.

·         Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation; particle nature of light.

·         Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation.

·         Davisson-Germer experiment.

Atoms And Nuclei

·         Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

·         Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.

·         Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

Electronic Devices

·         Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.

·         Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

·         Transistor as a switch.

Communication Systems

·         Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation,

·         Need for modulation,

·         Amplitude and Frequency Modulation,

·         Bandwidth of signals,

·         Bandwidth of Transmission medium,

·         Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).

Chemistry:

Some Basic Concepts In Chemistry

·         Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory

·         Concept of atom, molecule, element, and compound

·         Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis

·         Laws of chemical combination

·         Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae

·         Chemical equations and stoichiometry

States Of Matter

Classification of matter into solid, liquid, and gaseous states

 

·         Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases

·         Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure

·         Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation

·         Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates)

·         Concept of average, root mean square, and most probable velocities

·         Real gases, deviation from Ideal behavior, compressibility factor, and van der Waals equation

 

Liquid State: Properties of liquids – vapor pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only)

 

·         Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea)

·         Bragg’s Law and its applications

·         Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids

·         Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties

Atomic Structure

·         Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations

·         Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect

·         Spectrum of the hydrogen atom, Bohr model of a hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for the energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model

·         Dual nature of matter, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

 

·         Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, a quantum mechanical model of the atom, its important features, the concept of atomic orbitals as one-electron wave functions

·         various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance

·         shapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number

·         Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.

Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure

Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, the concept of ionic and covalent bonds

 

Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.

 

·         Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fagan's rule, dipole moment

·         Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules

·         Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory – Its important features, the concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals

·         Resonance

·         Molecular Orbital Theory – Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, the concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.

Chemical Thermodynamics

Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes

 

·         First law of thermodynamics – Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity

·         Hess’s law of constant heat summation

·         Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution

·         Second law of thermodynamics

·         Spontaneity of processes

·         DS of the universe and DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, DGO (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant

Solutions

·         Different methods for expressing the concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), the vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions

·         Colligative properties of dilute solutions – the relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, the elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure

·         Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, can't Hoff factor and its significance

Equilibrium

Meaning of equilibrium, the concept of dynamic equilibrium

 

·         Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid-liquid, liquid – gas and solid-gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.

·         Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, the significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, the effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle

 

Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, the solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions

Redox Reactions And Electrochemistry

Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions

 

Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications

 

·         Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement

·         Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change

·         Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.

Chemical Kinetics

·         Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst

·         elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first-order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, the effect of temperature on the rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).

Surface Chemistry

Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.

 

·         Colloidal state- distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobic

·         multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation

·         Emulsions and their characteristics

Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties

Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.

General Principles And Processes Of Isolation Of Metals

Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals

Hydrogen

·         Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen

·         Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water

·         Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide

·         Hydrogen as a fuel

Block Elements (Alkali And Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group – 1 and 2 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships

 

Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.

P – Block Elements

Group – 13 to Group 18 Elements

 

General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.

 

Groupwise study of the p – block elements

 

·         Group – 13: Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.

·         Group – 14: Allotropes of carbon, the tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and zeolites.

·         Group – 15: Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.

·         Group – 16: Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.

·         Group – 17: Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.

·         Group –18: Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.

D – And F – BLOCK ELEMENTS

Transition Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements – physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4

 

Inner Transition Elements: Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction

 

Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states

Co-Ordination Compounds

·         Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory

·         ligands, coordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism

·         Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).

Environmental Chemistry

·         Environmental pollution – Atmospheric, water and soil.

·         Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and Stratospheric

·         Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Greenhouse effect and Global warming; Acid rain;

·         Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.

·         Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of the ozone layer – its mechanism and effects.

·         Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.

·         Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.

Purification And Characterisation Of Organic Compounds

Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications

 

Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens

 

Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.

 

Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis

Some Basic Principles Of Organic Chemistry

Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: – C = C – , – C h C – and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.

 

Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)

Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.

Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.

Hydrocarbons

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.

Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes

 

Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.

 

Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization

Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of the functional group in mono-substituted benzene

Organic Compounds Containing Halogens

General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.

 

Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform.

Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses

Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers

·         Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.

·         Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction.

·         Ethers: Structure.

·         Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group

·         Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones

·         Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); the acidity of r – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones

Carboxylic Acids

Acidic strength and factors affecting it.

Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

·         General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

·         Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.

·         Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry

Polymers

·         General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization

·         Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization

·         some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

Biomolecules

·         General introduction and importance of biomolecules.

·         Carbohydrates – Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).

·         Proteins – Elementary Idea of r – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.

·         Vitamins – Classification and functions.

·         Nucleic Acids – Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquillizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines – their meaning and common examples.

 

Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples. Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY

Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.

 

·         Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum.

·         Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.

 

The chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises – Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.

 

Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+. Anions- CO3 2-, S2-, SO4 2-, NO2-, NO3-, CI -, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).

Chemical principles involved in the following experiments

·         Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4

·         Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base

·         Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols

·         Kinetic study of the reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature

UP GNM Syllabus for Biology Classes:

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Asexual reproduction Modes of reproduction-Asexual and sexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex-linked inheritance - Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans - Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution - Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Unit VIII. Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; Cancer, HIV, and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single-cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture, and Animal husbandry.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation, and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit IX. Biotechnology and Its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy, and patents.

Unit X. Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; the importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries, and Ramsar sites.

Chapter-16: Environmental Issues

Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; anyone case study as success story addressing the environmental issue(s).

UP GNM Syllabus for Zoology:

§  Morphology

§  Biochemistry

§  Physiology

§  Immunology

§  Cell and Molecular Biology

§  Embryology

§  Biotechnology

§  Genomics

§  Genetics Evolution

§  Ecology

§  Biosystematics, Structure, and Functions of Invertebrates

§  Biosystematics, Structure, and Functions of Invertebrates

§  Tools and Techniques in Biology

§  Animal Physiology and Ethology

§  Genetics and Evolution

§  Structure and Function of Vertebrates

§  Environmental Biology

§  Biology of Parasitism

§  Chronobiology

§  Proteins- Structure, Functions, and Evolution

§  Structure and Function of Genes

§  Animal Behaviour

Need help?

Copyright @2021.www.collegedisha.com. All rights reserved