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# UP GNM Exam Syllabus

§  Physics

§  Chemistry

§  Biology

§  Zoology

#### UP GNM Syllabus for Physics

 Physics And Measurement ·         Physics, technology, and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units ·         Least count, accuracy, and precision of measuring instruments, ·         Errors in measurement, ·         Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis, and its applications Kinematics ·         Frame of reference ·         Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed, and velocity ·         Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed, and instantaneous velocity ·         Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion. ·         Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector ·         Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion Laws Of Motion ·         Force and Inertia, ·         Newton’s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion. ·         Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications Work, Energy, And Power Work is done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work-energy theorem, power   The potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. Rotational Motion ·         Centre of a mass of a two-particle system, Centre of the mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; the moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; a moment of inertia, the radius of gyration. ·         Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. ·         Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion Gravitation ·         The universal law of gravitation. ·         Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. ·         Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. ·         Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. ·         Escape velocity. ·         Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites Properties Of Solids And Liquids ·         Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s Law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. ·         Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications. ·         Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli’s principle and its applications. ·         Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension – drops, bubbles and capillary rise. ·         Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. ·         Heat transfer-conduction, convection, and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling Thermodynamics ·         Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, the concept of temperature. ·         Heat, work, and internal energy. ·         First law of thermodynamics. ·         Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. ·         Carnot engine and its efficiency. Kinetic Theory Of Gases ·         Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. ·         Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, the concept of pressure. ·         Kinetic energy and temperature: RMS speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro’s number Oscillations And Waves Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. – Kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance   Wave motion - Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, a reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound Electrostatics Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. -Electric flux, Gauss’s law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field. -Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, a combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor. Current Electricity ·         Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance. ·  Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, the combination of cells in series and in parallel. ·         Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications. ·         Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge. ·         Potentiometer – principle and its applications. Magnetic Effects Of Current And Magnetism ·         Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. ·         Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. The force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. ·         Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic substances. ·         Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets. Electromagnetic Induction And Alternating Currents ·         Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. ·         Self and mutual inductance. ·         Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattles current. ·         AC generator and transformer Electromagnetic Waves ·         Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. ·         Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays). ·         Applications of e.m. waves Optics Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics ·         wavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double-slit experiment, and expression for fringe width. ·         Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. ·         Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane-polarized light and Polaroids. Dual Nature Of Matter And radiation ·         Dual nature of radiation. ·         Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. ·         Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation. ·         Davisson-Germer experiment. Atoms And Nuclei ·         Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. ·         Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. ·         Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion. Electronic Devices ·         Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. ·         Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). ·         Transistor as a switch. Communication Systems ·         Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, ·         Need for modulation, ·         Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, ·         Bandwidth of signals, ·         Bandwidth of Transmission medium, ·         Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).

### Chemistry:

#### UP GNM Syllabus for Biology Classes:

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Asexual reproduction Modes of reproduction-Asexual and sexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex-linked inheritance - Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans - Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution - Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Unit VIII. Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; Cancer, HIV, and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single-cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture, and Animal husbandry.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation, and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit IX. Biotechnology and Its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy, and patents.

Unit X. Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; the importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries, and Ramsar sites.

Chapter-16: Environmental Issues

Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; anyone case study as success story addressing the environmental issue(s).

UP GNM Syllabus for Zoology:

§  Morphology

§  Biochemistry

§  Physiology

§  Immunology

§  Cell and Molecular Biology

§  Embryology

§  Biotechnology

§  Genomics

§  Genetics Evolution

§  Ecology

§  Biosystematics, Structure, and Functions of Invertebrates

§  Biosystematics, Structure, and Functions of Invertebrates

§  Tools and Techniques in Biology

§  Animal Physiology and Ethology

§  Genetics and Evolution

§  Structure and Function of Vertebrates

§  Environmental Biology

§  Biology of Parasitism

§  Chronobiology

§  Proteins- Structure, Functions, and Evolution

§  Structure and Function of Genes

§  Animal Behaviour