JNU CEEB Syllabus 2023:
Part A (Section I)
Basic principles in mechanical engineering, chemical & biochemical engineering, electrical and electronics
Computer applications in chemical engineering, thermodynamics, laws of conservation of mass and energy, First and Second laws of thermodynamics, chemical process industries instrumentation, methods of chemical analysis, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff's equation, the heat of reaction, Hess law, the heat of formation, Applications of first law to close and open systems, Second law and Entropy Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: free energy, and work function and equation of state and departure function. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, free energy change and equilibrium constant, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Trouton's rule, properties of mixtures: partial molar properties, excess properties and activity coefficients; phase equilibria: predicting VLE of systems; Third law of thermodynamics, Azeotrope and eutectic mixtures, and ideal gas mixtures, stoichiometry, fluid dynamics, mechanical operations, heat and mass transfer operations- chemical kinetics/reaction engineering- process instrumentation dynamics and control- process equipment design. Material and Energy Balances: Laws of mass conservation, heats of reactions, the law of mass action, Correlation, linear regression and analysis; the degree of freedom analysis.
Chemical Reaction Engineering:
Basic laws of chemical kinetics, sequential, chemical rate equations, differential and integral kinetics analysis, parallel and other complex system kinetics, CSTR and Plug Flow reactors, ideal and non-ideal reactors, tank-in-series and APDF models, residence time distribution concept, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
Bernoulli equation and its application, energy balance, Fluid statics, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, flow through pipeline systems (laminar and turbulent flows, friction factor), flow meters, pumps and compressors, packed and fluidized beds and hindered settling, centrifuge and cyclones, size reduction and size separation free, thickening and classification, filtration, mixing and agitation; conveying of solids. The relation between stress and strain rate for Newtonian fluids.
Heat and Mass Transfer:
Conduction, heat transfer coefficients, convection and radiation, steady and unsteady heat conduction, boiling, condensation and evaporation; types of heat exchangers and evaporators. HTU & NTU concepts design and operation of equipment for distillation, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption, absorption, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction.
Principles of Biochemical Engineering:
Enzyme catalysis (Michaelis Menten Kinetics) and reactor design. Material & energy balances of fermentation processes. Kinetics of microbial growth and product formation. Nature of fermentation processes. Mass transfer in immobilized enzyme systems and Oxygen transfer in the submerged fermentation process, Transport phenomena in biochemical reactors, examples of primary metabolites, secondary metabolites and enzymes. Bioreactor operation and design, reactor sterilization. Continuous culture process, Batch, fed-batch and cell recycle processes. Modelling of non-ideal behaviour in bioreactors. Air-lift reactors, Novel bioreactors, membrane bioreactors and fluidized bed reactors.
Physiology, Pharmacology & Biochemistry:
Basic physiology and biochemistry pertaining to all the systems of the body. Pharmacological effects, Classification, mode of action, side effects of toxicity and posology of drugs acting on the CNS, ANS, CVS, gastrointestinal system, endocrine system. Principles of chemotherapy, anticancer drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, vitamins and minerals.
Pharmaceutical processing - Milling, Mixing, Rheology, filtration, sterility testing, sterilization, disinfection, Pharmaceutical dosage forms, Formulation, manufacture and evaluation of solid, semisolid, liquid, aerosols and parenteral. Chemistry of natural products, anticancer, CVS drugs, SAR and Chemistry of analgesics, drugs acting on the CNS, GIT, chemotherapeutic agents, vitamins, hormones. Classification and identification, extraction and isolation of active principles of commonly used medicinal plants. Immunological preparations, Pharmacokinetics-drug absorption, genetic engineering, fermentation, Biopharmaceutics, distribution, metabolism and elimination- general principles. Basic concepts of analysis of drugs.
Biologics and Biopharmaceuticals:
Antibodies: polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, diagnostic antibodies catalytic antibodies, production of antibodies, vaccines: types, production and applications; Therapeutic proteins and peptides: Insulin, erythropoietin, interleukins, hormones, sterilization methods for biopharmaceuticals, biosimilars, blood plasma products, recent examples of biopharmaceutical and Cohn fractionation.
Food Science and Technology:
Food chemistry and analysis, microbiology and biochemistry of fermented food products, food spoilage and foodborne diseases, Food additives and ingredients, Chemistry and technology of various food commodities like cereals, legumes and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, meat, fish and poultry, plantation crops, milk and dairy products, confections, beverages etc., Food processing and preservation, Food packaging, Use of enzymes in the food industry, Human nutrition, Food safety, laws and Nutraceuticals and functional foods.
Production of value-added things and products from agricultural waste, traditional crop improvement vs biotechnological interventions, secondary agriculture, post-harvest technologies.
Introduction to fermentation processes, Optimization of media and culture conditions, Isolation, preservation and improvement of industrially important microorganisms Bioreactor design and operations, Modes of culture – batch, fed-batch, perfusion, continuous, chemostat etc., Types of bioreactors, Scale-up of microbial and animal cell-based processes with case studies related to applications in biopharma, biochemical, food and agro-industries, Bioprocess considerations for animal & plant cell cultures. Applications of cell culture technology for production of vaccines, hybridoma technology and gene knockout; growth hormones; interferons, cytokines and therapeutic proteins; stem cells and its application in organ synthesis; gene therapy, strategies for improving yield and productivity and transgenic animals and molecular pharming.
Centrifugation, sedimentation & flocculation, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-liquid extraction, Cell disruption- physical, chemical, mechanical and enzymatic methods, Concentration methods, Purification by adsorption, chromatographic and membrane (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, plate and frame filters, hollow fibres, cassette filters) techniques including charge based, size-based and affinity-based processes, drying; Process design of industrial bio-products such as proteins & enzymes, peptides, antibiotics, vitamins, natural products, oils and Oleochemicals, polysaccharides & biopolymers, enzyme immobilization, methods of controlling the bioburden in biopharma and biological products and food products.
Cell Culture Techniques:
Cell culture materials and tools, growth conditions and other requirements for the establishment and maintenance of plant and animal cells, cell lines and tissues, micropropagation, virus-free plants, protoplast & haploid culture, synthetic seeds, hairy root culture. culture. Animal cell cultivation: primary culture, biology and characterization of the cultured cell, growth kinetics.
(Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics)
Calculus, Differential Equation, Complex numbers, Complex integration and Power series- Three Dimensional Geometry- Algebra.
Kinematics Newton’s laws mean mechanical and work energy, dynamics of rotary motion, fundamentals of the special theory of relativity, gravitation and motion in non-inertial frames.
Ist law of thermodynamics (Ideal gases) Kinetic theory of gases- 2nd law of thermodynamics -real gases.
Electricity and Magnetism:
Electrostatics- Coulomb’s law, electric field potential, the energy of an electric field, capacitance, dielectrics in an electric field, direct current, magnetic field of direct current, electromagnetic induction.
Waves and Optics:
Free harmonic oscillators, electromagnetic waves, elastic waves, interference, diffraction, scattering and polarisation of light, thermal radiation.
Structure of matter and basic solid-state physics - elementary nuclear physics- elementary quantum mechanics- the structure of the atom.
Electronic structure of atoms, periodic table and periodic properties. General characteristics, structure, transition elements and reactions of non-transition elements. Coordination compounds, crystal field and ligand field theories, structure, spectral and magnetic properties.
Synthesis, alkynes, reactions and mechanisms of alkenes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, halides, nitro compounds and amines. Structure and properties of biomolecules, carbohydrates, oils, oleochemical, amino acids and proteins.
Chemical equilibrium, second law and entropy, first law, thermochemistry, free energy, properties of dilute solutions. Chemical kinetics, rates of reactions and factors affecting rates of reactions.
Analytical techniques in Biotechnology:
Principle and applications of spectroscopy, UV, visible and IR spectroscopy, analytical chromatography such as GC, HPLC, TLC, HPTLC, FPLC, in chromatography, Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) etc, hyphenated techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (DSC, TGA), Karl Fischer titration, LC-MS and GC-MS, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques, Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA techniques, southern & western blotting, Gel Electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis, PCR & Q-PCR, AFM, SEM, TEM, EDX, X-ray diffraction, Zetasizer, common methods of organic and inorganic analysis, acid-base titrations, validation of analytical methods as per ICH guidelines, characterization of biotech products as per regulatory guidelines & pharmacopoeial guidelines, Pharmacopoeial assay, LAL-Test, BET Test, Principles and methods of microbial assay of pharmacopoeia, filter sterility testing of biopharmaceuticals, integrity test, methods of analysis of for proteins.
(Fundamentals of Life Sciences, Chemical Sciences and Informatics)
Organization of unicellular organisms, invertebrates and vertebrates. Ultrastructure of plant and animal cells. Nucleic acids, protein synthesis, Mendelian genetics. Morphology of angiosperms. Biotechnology, Physiology.
Introduction to www. Networking:
Basics-modem-hub-switch-commands to transfer files- remote login. Elements of languages used in the Internet JAVA- Perl. Elements of databases- Relational databases.
Genetics and Genetic Engineering:
Genotype and Phenotype, Cell division, nucleic acid structure, Genetic Disorders, Enzymes in Genetic Engineering, crossing over and mapping, Mutations and their role in evolution, pending)Cloning Vehicles, gene cloning strategies, mutagenesis, Cloning of transgenes in Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic systems, PCR technologies, DNA sequencing, gene transfer in plants and animals, molecular markers, Applications and impact of DNA technology.
The central dogma of molecular biology, Coding and non-coding DNA & RNA, Gene structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Gene regulation, Molecular mechanisms of recombination, Transposons and rearrangement of DNA, DNA damage and repair, Post-transcriptional and post-translational modification. Concept of the system and synthetic biology.
Types of biofuels, Biomass characterization and processing, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen production, algal biofuels (microalgae and macroalgae cultivation, harvesting, processing and value addition). Application of enzymes in biofuels.
Chemistry and chemical equilibria:
Ionic and covalent bonding, M.O. and V.B. approach for diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, hybridisation, resonance, dipole moment, structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii, lattice energy (Born-Haber Cycle). Identification of functional groups by chemical tests. Acids and bases, optical and geometrical isomerism, electronic and steric effects, tautomerism, conformers, the concept of aromaticity. Reaction kinetics: Rate constant, an order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and second-order kinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions. Colligative properties of solutions, hydrolysis of salts, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product, common ion effect, pH, buffer and their applications in chemical analysis, equilibrium constants for homogeneous reactions. Zeta potential and electric double layer.
Science Stream (Part A)
Biochemistry and Microbiology:
Cell structure and function; protein synthesis; genetic code; DNA & RNA; carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism, clinical biochemistry; Inborn errors of metabolism; hormones and their function. Enzymes, classification, nomenclature, kinetics etc. Metabolism & regulation of Metabolic disorders, carbohydrates, proteins, fats & nucleic acids, Classification and taxonomy of microorganisms; Growth and physiology; Laboratory cultivation of microbes, Methods of microbial enumeration; Microbial metabolism, photosynthesis, fermentation, aerobic & anaerobic respiration, Pathogenic microorganisms, Microbial genetics, Microbes in industry, Endotoxins, viruses (enveloped and non-enveloped).
Molecular biology & recombinant DNA technology:
Properties of DNA replication, damage and repair, chromosomes, gene manipulation, cloning vectors, gene libraries, screening of libraries, gene cloning, application of recombinant DNA technology, Southern blotting PCR, RFLP, Western, Northern. The microarray technology, DNA fingerprinting and recombinant DNA technology; prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems; Vectors: plasmids, phages and cosmids. Gene mutation: Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis; Bacterial, yeast, cyanobacteria, fungi genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, transposons genome shuffling, electroporation; DNA repair and chromosomal aberrations, synthetic biology for the production of biochemicals and biotech products.
Cells of the immune system, hybridoma technology, lymphoid tissues, complement, antibodies, applications of monoclonal antibodies, antigen recognition, processing and presentation, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines, hypersensitivity, vaccines & vaccine technology, auto-immunity, transplantation, immune responses to various infections, function and diversity, Immunotechnology, B-cells and T-cells, Antibody structure, T-cell receptors, Antigen-antibody Reaction, Complement system and Cytokines, Hyper-Sensitivity, MHC and HLA, Hybridoma, Immunodeficiency diseases.
Part B (Section II)
(Physics and Chemistry)
Kinematics Newton’s laws, work and mechanical energy, dynamics of rotary motion, fundamentals of the special theory of relativity- gravitation- motion in non-inertial frames.
Ideal gases 1st law of thermodynamics, Kinetic theory of gases- 2nd law of thermodynamics (real gases).
Electricity and Magnetism:
Electrostatics- Coulomb’s law- electric field potential- capacitance- dielectrics in an electric field- the energy of an electric field- direct current-magnetic field of direct current- electromagnetic induction.
Waves and Optics:
Free hormone oscillators- elastic waves- Electromagnetic waves- interference, diffraction, scattering and polarisation of light- thermal radiation.
Structure of matter and basic solid-state physics, elementary nuclear physics, elementary quantum mechanics, the structure of atom.
Electronic structure of atoms, periodic table and periodic properties. General characteristics, structure and reactions of non-transition and transition elements. Coordination compounds, structure, spectral, crystal field and ligand field theories and magnetic properties.
Synthesis, reactions and mechanisms of alkenes, phenols, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, halides, nitro compounds and amines. Structure and properties of biomolecules, carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins.
Chemical equilibrium, free energy, first law, thermochemistry, second law and entropy, properties of dilute solutions. Chemical kinetics, factors affecting rates of reactions and rates of reactions. Spectroscopy, principles of UV-visible and IR spectroscopy.
(Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences)
Vectors- Trigonometry- Differentiation & Integration- Matrices
Introduction to www. Networking: Basics-modem-hub- switch-commands to transfer files- remote login. Elements of languages used on the Internet JAVA is Perl. Elements of databases- Relational database.
Basics of computers- hardware components of a computer. Operating systems- windows- Linux- simple commands. Elementary Boolean arithmetic- subtraction- addition- multiplication. Applications- word processing- spreadsheets. Elementary basic programming commands and syntax. spreadsheets.
Computational Biology Stream Syllabus
Linear algebra, matrices, differential equations, determinants, vector calculus, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, orthogonality, integral calculus, multivariate calculus, probability, discrete and continuous distributions, conditional probability, Bayes theorem, statistics, hypothesis testing, complex variables, permutation & combination, Boolean logic.
Data structures like list, stack, queue, linked lists, trees, running time analysis of algorithms, recurrence relations, graph algorithms, searching and sorting algorithms, greedy algorithms, dynamic programming, divide and conquer, recursive algorithms, file I/O, databases, basic operating system concepts.
Life sciences/Chemical sciences:
Cell and its structure, eukaryotes and prokaryotes, Cellular organisms such as mitochondria and ribosomes, Mendelian genetics, Genotype and Phenotype, nucleic acid structure, Cell division, Central dogma of molecular biology, Gene structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Coding and non-coding DNA & RNA, Gene regulation, genetic codes, protein synthesis. pH, water properties, acid and bases, free energy, entropy, stereochemistry, chemical kinetics, order of reactions, equilibrium, laws of thermodynamics, structure and properties of simple bioorganic molecules like alkanes, alkenes, aromatic compounds, amino acids, and nucleic acids.
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