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How to Become a Doctor

Update on 2024-04-15

How to Become a Doctor - How Long Does it Take to Become a Doctor in India

How to Become a Doctor: The Profession of the physician or medical doctor is extremely rewarding financially or intrinsically. The main task of a doctor is to help the sick and the injured people. There are numerous methods you just need to complete your career pathway in order to become a doctor.

The medical field requires many years of hard work with lots of studying, examinations, and practical experience in the medical field. Students have to start preparing as soon as possible, preferably in high school.

To Become a Doctor: Details

You need to be passionate and determined about this field. There are different types of specialty doctors such as Paediatricians treat infants and children, while gerontologists specialize in treating the elderly.

For example, Doctors may focus on specific parts of the human body, such as the heart and circulatory system (cardiologists), the brain and nervous system (neurologists), the digestive system (gastroenterologists), the endocrine system (endocrinologists), or the skin (dermatologists).

Important Points for Becoming a Doctor:

  • This profession is very demanding in today's life because the human body is not able to fight any disease.

  • Their role is to treat problems of the human body, you are expected to have respect for the human body and human life.

  • There are no time limits for work, sometimes you are required to work for longer periods than their job description.

  • Doctors spend many years of their life on training and this training starts in college. Medical colleges accept students from different educational backgrounds but look for applicants with the highest rank in Medical Entrance Examinations. Candidates must have a valid score in biology, chemistry, physics, math, and writing courses.

  • Medical school aspirants are encouraged to do various extracurricular activities and volunteer or work in health care settings before graduation.

  • During the Medical Course, students learn all about the scientific foundation of medicine, including the structure of the human body at the cellular, genetic, molecular level.

  • They also study the organ and organ system; the principle of disease, including pathology, immunology, and pharmacology; and the practice of medicine, including ethics, public health, and epidemiology.

  • Medical students learn how to interact with patients, including taking a medical history, interviewing patients, examining them, and building a relationship with them.

  • Candidates are required to complete various clerkships in the second half of their medical course. In clerkship, learners observe and treat patients under the guidance of experienced physicians or doctors. Each clerkship gets training in the health care setting, most likely a teaching hospital, and focuses on one area of care, like pediatrics, psychiatry, surgery, primary care, anesthesia, critical care, and obstetrics and gynecology.

How to become a Doctor in India after 10th

  • Medical aspirants are required to study Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics in their HSC or 10+2.

  • At least, 60% of marks must have been secured in the 12th standard.

  • To get admission in the medical course, candidates are required to crack the entrance exam.

Different Types of Entrance Exams for Medical Courses:

  • NEET- National Entrance Eligibility Test

  • AIIMS - All India Institute of Medical Science

  • JIPMER- Jawaharlal Institute for Medical Education and Research

  • DUPGMET- Delhi University Post Graduate Medical Test

In India, medical entrance exams are conducted by both National Level decision boards and State Level Boards. There are various universities in India that accept the applications of the aspirants based on their performance in National Level Medical Entrance Examinations.

Candidates should try to get admission through state-level entrance exams. Some universities or colleges designed their own entrance exams for becoming a doctor.

What are the steps to become a doctor in India

Step 1: To make a future in the medical field, it is necessary for the candidates to study science at the 12th level. It is compulsory that some basic subjects should be studied such as physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics.

Step 2: During school education, students should prepare themselves for the entrance exams. After completing 10+2, candidates have to give various entrance examinations depending on the institution.

If you crack the medical entrance exam then you will be eligible for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) for the next five and a half years. It will include a one-year compulsory internship.

Step 3: In the MBBS course, you will learn about all the different areas in medicine. If you want to get a specialization in a particular area, then go ahead for MD or MS. otherwise you can also start your career as a general physician.

Different Types of Courses to Become a Doctor:

1. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Science (MBBS)

  • MBBS is an undergraduate degree in the medical field. The duration of the course is five and half years where candidates are studied about anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pathology, etc

  • If you want to become a doctor in the future, it is compulsory for you to complete the MBBS course. During the course, four years includes studying the syllabus and an additional year of compulsory internship.

  • Candidates should have an aggregate of 50% in the subjects physics, chemistry, maths, and biology.

  • To get admission into an MBBS program in India, you should have a valid score in the National Eligibility Entrance Test (NEET).

  • You can start applying to this program from the age of 17 years, until the age of 25 years.

  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) conduct their own entrance exams which are approved by the Medical Council of India.

  • After completing the MBBS course, most of the aspirants go for Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Master of Surgery (MS) in which aspirants get expertise in any one particular field of medicine.  

  • If you are passionate about MBBS, you must have a certain set of skills like

  • If you want to make a career in medicine then you must have leadership ability and also have the ability to work with team members. Make yourself a helpful, selfless, and kind person.

  • You have to be updated with all the new advancements and innovations in the medical field. It is very important for you.

2. Master of Surgery (MS)

  • Master of Surgery (MS) is a postgraduate degree. The duration of the MS course is 3 years and is divided into 6 semesters.  

  • Students who have successfully done five and a half years of MBBS can pursue further MS degrees.

  • For this, they must have secured a valid score in their entrance exams.

  • There are several colleges in India that reserve 50% of admissions for the underprivileged or for candidates who belong to the backward classes.

  • Foreign students can apply for admission through Diplomatic certificates and they are required to give the admission tests just like regular candidates are expected.  

A few of the Entrance Exams for Master of Surgery (M.S) are:

  • UPPGMEE- UP Post-Graduate Medical Entrance Examination

  • AIPGMEE- All India Postgraduate Medical Entrance Examination

  • DUPGMET- Delhi University Post Graduate Medical Entrance Test

List of Specializations in Master of Surgery (M.S):

  • General surgery

  • Ophthalmology

  • Orthopedics

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

  • All the examinations for any subject in MS will be conducted through thesis, theory paper, practical/clinical examination, and an oral interview.

Top colleges for Master of Surgery

  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

  • Armed Forces Medical College - [AFMC], Pune

Job opportunities for MS graduates are:

  • Plastic surgeon

  • Ophthalmologist

  • Pediatric Surgeon

  • Neonatal Surgeon    

  • Urological Surgeon    

  • Vascular Surgeon.

3. Doctor of Medicine (MD)

  • Doctor of  Medicine (M.D) is a postgraduate degree that can be obtained by candidates after completion of the MBBS course.

  • During the course,  you will gain a better understanding and knowledge of a person’s interested field of specialization with hands-on experience from as early as your second week.

  • The duration of the MD course is a minimum of 2 to 3 years, during the curriculum students get the knowledge in both theoretical and practical.

  • One can apply only if they have completed an MBBS degree from a reputed university that has been recognized by the Medical Council of India.

List of Specializations in M.D Courses are:

  • MD- Cardiology

  • MD- Neurology

  • MD- Rheumatology

  • MD- Neuroradiology

  • MD- Neuro Nephrology

  • MD- Gastroenterology

The curriculum for M.D will be covered through many mediums like

  • Classroom lectures  

  • Thesis on the subjects chosen.

  • Theory papers

  • Clinical/practical

  • Oral interview   

  • Seminars   

  • Journal clubs   

  • Group discussion   

  • Participation in experiments and laboratory works

  • Research studies in the specialization chosen    

  • Presentation to applied aspects of subject relevant techniques

Jobs opportunities that MD graduates can take-up

  • Chiropodist

  • Neurologist

  • Cardiologist

  • Bacteriologist

  • Chief Medical Officer

  • Physiologist

  • Radiologist  

  • Nutritionist

4. Bachelor in Dental Surgery (BDS)

  • BDS is a graduate degree that focuses on diagnosing oral health problems. Through this BDS Program, candidates are taught about problems and surgeries related to dentistry.

  • The duration of the BDS course is for 5 years with a compulsory rotating internship.

  • You must have studied PCMB subjects in class 12th. You are required to have at least 50% marks in each subject.

  • During the curriculum, students gain theoretical knowledge and are placed in situations where they have to directly handle patients and gain practical knowledge.

5. Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)

  • BHMS is an undergraduate degree with a duration of 5 years. During the course, students gain knowledge in the medical field of homeopathy.

  • After completing this course, graduates are allowed to practice in the homeopathic field as a doctor.

  • Candidates should have passed 10+2 with an aggregate of 50% marks.

  • To get admission to BHMS, must have a valid score in the NEET exam.

6. Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)

  • BAMS is a bachelor's degree program in which students learn about the ancient method of curing diseases that is Ayurveda.

  • This course concentrates on enhancing the natural healing system of the human body.

  • The duration of the course is 5 years 6 months but the course is divided into three parts with 1.5 years duration each. One-and-a-half years of an internship is mandatory.

  • Candidates must have completed 12th classes from the science stream with an aggregate of 50%.

  • Candidates must appear on the NEET exam for admission.

7. Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (BUMS)

  • BUMS is 5.5 years undergraduate degree that includes 4.5 years of theoretical learning and 1 year of practical usage through an internship.

  • This course helps to gain knowledge and exposure to apply the uses of Unani in the real world.

  • The applicants have to complete HSC with PCMB subjects and appear for the NEET exam.

  • Admission will be granted on the basis of the rank of the NEET entrance exam.  

8. Bachelor of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (B.V Sc. & A.H)

  • B. V. Sc. & A. H is an undergraduate course that deals with the treatment of diseases and illnesses in animals and birds.

  • The duration of the aforementioned course is from 4.5 years to 5 years.

  • To get admission in B.V. Sc. & A.H course, candidates must have a valid score in the All India Pre-Veterinary Test (AIPVT) Entrance Examination.

  • Aspirants should have a minimum of 50% marks in the 12th class and must have studied PCMB subjects.

  • After completing this course, graduates can become veterinarians, biological scientists, or even lecturers.

  • For this course, you must be able to understand the feelings of animals through the signs of their body language.

9. Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm)

  • B. Pharm is an undergraduate course in which gain knowledge in the art of mixing chemicals and drugs for medical purposes.

  • To pursue a B.Pharma one should have studied physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics in class 12th and should have at least 50% marks in all subjects.

  • Candidates are required to crack the entrance exams which are held on the university level, state level, and national level.

  • The name of the national level exam is the Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT). The course duration is three years which is divided into six semesters.

  • After completing the Pharmacy course, one can be a Pharmacists/chemist/druggist who has the technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.

  • Pharmacists' aim is to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs.

  • They always focus on safe and effective medication use. The aspirant must obtain a B. Pharm (Bachelor of Pharmacy) program at a pharmacy school or related institution.

  • After completing B. Pharm, aspirants can go for a PhD

Career Option After Medical Course:

Physiotherapy: Physiotherapy is a physical science that helps improve movement dysfunction and promote functions of the human body and optimal health. This involves the assessment, diagnosis, and therapy of disease and disability through physical means.

Physiotherapists have knowledge of the human anatomy and the intricacies of bones, muscles, and nerves.

Optometry: Optometry is a health-related profession in which optometrists have complete knowledge of eyes and vision. They examined the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease

Dentistry: Dentistry is also a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity.

To make a career in Dentistry, candidates are required to get admission in BDS (Bachelor of Dental Surgery) is of 5 years. They must have a valid score on the NEET entrance exam.

MedicineThe medicine career is one of the oldest and most appreciated professions. The first requirement is to crack NEET and/or the state medical entrance exams and secure a seat in a medical college.

The bachelor's degree – MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery), BAMS (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery), and BHMS (Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery) are of 5 years. The hard work and incalculable hours one needs to invest in studying medicine can come across as an arduous task, but the power to save lives is well worth the effort.

Top Medical Colleges in India:

1. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

AIIMS is located in New Delhi and it offers a lot of undergraduate and postgraduate courses for students who have successfully finished their admission tests.

Undergraduate Courses Paramedical Courses Postgraduate Courses


B.Sc. (Hons.) Ophthalmic Techniques


B.Sc.  Nursing (post certificate)

B.Sc. (Hons.) Medical Technology


B.Sc. (Hons) Nursing


M.Sc./ M. Biotechnology

2. Armed Forces Medical College, Pune

Nursing Courses:

Courses Name Duration

Basic B.Sc. Nursing

4 years

Post Basic B.Sc. Nursing

2 years

M.Sc. Nursing

2 years

Post Basic Diploma / Certificate Course in Operation Room Nursing

2 years

Post basic diploma/ certificate course in Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation nursing

1 year

Post Basic diploma/ certificate in oncology nursing

1 year

Post basic diploma/ certificate course in cardiothoracic nursing

1 year

Post basic diploma/ certificate course in neonatal nursing

1 year

Postgraduate Courses:

Degree Name Subject


M.Sc. – Anatomy

Master of Hospital Administration




Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy

General Medicine

Hospital Administration

Immuno Haematology & Blood Transfusion







Radio Diagnosis/Radiology

Sports Medicine

Social & Preventive Medicine / Community Medicine

Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases / Pulmonary Medicine



Obstetrics & Gynaecology




General Surgery


Super Speciality and Ph.D. Courses:

Degree Subject




Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

Neuro Surgery

Pediatric Surgery

Plastic Surgery



PG Diploma Courses:

  • Diploma in Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy

  • Diploma in Anaesthesia

  • Diploma in Child Health

  • Diploma in Clinical Pathology

  • Diploma in Hospital Administration

  • Diploma in Industrial Health

  • Diploma in Obstetrics & Gynaecology

  • Diploma in Ophthalmology

  • Diploma in Otorhinolaryngology

  • Diploma in Psychological Medicine

  • Diploma in Public Health

  • Diploma in Radio-Diagnosis

3. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry

JIPMER is one of the leading medical colleges in India and it offers various courses to its students. They held their own entrance test for the admission of students.

Courses Subjects
Undergraduate Course





Cardiac Technology

Dialysis Technology


Nuclear Medicine Technology



Anatomy Biochemistry

Blood Transfusion and Immunohematology

Community Medicine Dermatology

Venereology & Leprology

Emergency Medicine

Forensic Medicine

General Medicine


General Surgery Obstetrics & Gynecology,


Orthopedic Surgery

Oto-rhino Laryngology (E.N.T.)

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