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Ph.D Course, Full Form, Subjects, Colleges, Entrance 2022 - What is PhD Degree?

Update on 17 Nov, 22

5 minutes read

Ph.D Course, Full Form, Subjects, Colleges, Entrance 2022 - What is PhD Degree?

As the name suggests, Ph.D. is a doctoral-level degree offered in various domains. The duration o this course is 3-6 years, this means that a candidate gets a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 6 years to complete their P.h.D. Also, the duration of the Ph.D. course varies from one institute to another.

If you wish to become a researcher or want to teach at universities as a Professor, then a P.h.D can help you move forward in your career. A P.h.D can be pursued in almost any field.

During this course, the candidates have to select a topic or subject for their research. In the last year of the course, an extensive research thesis has to be submitted by the candidate.

To pursue a P.h.D course, one must have to complete their postgraduation and obtain a Master's degree from a recognized university. Candidates possessing an M.Phil degree are also eligible to pursue a doctorate degree.

This course is offered in regular mode, earlier the candidates were able to pursue a P.h.D course through distance mode but in 2017, UGC has taken a decision to discontinue the delivery of a P.h.D course through distance education mode. This means the P.h.D course pursued in distance mode would no longer be recognized by the University Grants Commission.

There are various entrance exams conducted for the P.h.D aspirants and fellowships are also offered to the qualifying candidates, Some of the popular P.h.D entrance exams such as UGC-NET, GATE, and JEST.

Full Form of PhD

The full form of Ph.D. is Doctor of Philosophy, It is an abbreviation derived from a Latin term - "Philosophiae Doctor". In some countries. P.h.D course is also called D.Phil. It is a Doctorate degree and those who possess this degree and also awarded the title "Doctor/Dr." before their name. Hence it is the most prestigious degree in the academic field.

Duration of Ph.D. Course

  • The usual duration of a regular P.h.D course is 3 years but it can be extended to 5 or 7 years depends how long a student takes to complete his/her research work. Some universities grant the flexibility to extend the duration of this course. 

  • There are other factors that determine the duration of the Course completion such as one's knowledge of the research area, research experience, supervisor's knowledge, the relevance of the research, communication skills, the availability of resources, and the amount of course work, etc. 

  • NIT colleges provide a duration of 3-5 years for the course completion whereas IITs have a duration of 5-7 years for Ph.D. courses. 

PhD Course: Key Highlights 2022

PhD Full Form Doctor of Philosophy
PhD Duration 4 years to 6 Years
PhD Degree Components Coursework, Presentation, Submission of Progress Reports, Thesis
PhD Admission Process Entrance Exams/Direct Admission
PhD Specializations Physics, Chemistry, Marketing, History, Political Science, Psychology, Hindi, Mechanical Engineering, etc.
Online PhD Program IGNOU, IISc Bangalore, Dr. BR Ambedkar Open University Hyderabad, Madhya Pradesh Bhoj Open University
Fully Funded PhD Programs Valid Score in UGC NET to get funded by the government.
Top PhD Colleges IITs, IISc, Jadavpur University, Delhi University, JNU

How to get PhD Admission 2022 ?

Admissions to the Ph.D. course are usually based on the national level or university level exams, Candidates need a qualifying score in UGC NET, GATE, IIT JAM, or NPAT  to get admission to the premier institutions offering this course.

Please note that candidates who are looking forward to pursuing a Ph.D. degree in any branch of engineering and Technology discipline must have to appear in the GATE entrance test and obtain a valid score in the same.

As per UGC guidelines, students who have obtained a 4-year undergraduate degree along with a postgraduation degree are eligible to apply for a Ph.D. degree directly.

Ph.D. Eligibility Criteria 2022

These are the eligibility requirements that need to be fulfilled by the candidates before applying for a Ph.D. course:

  • A Masters's degree in any domain or discipline/ M.Phil degree (for some subjects)
  • Atleast 50%-55% score in the post-graduation exams. Candidates who belong to reserved categories (SC/ST/OBC) will get a relaxation of 5%-10% on the minimum required marks in Masters, however, the percentage of relaxation will be determined according to his/her category.
  • A valid score in the required entrance exam (UGC NET, IIT JAM, GATE)
  • There are some universities that conduct written tests and personal interviews to shortlist the candidates for Ph.D. admissions 
  • Candidates who have some hands-on experience in a relevant field are given more preference during the selection process.

Admission through UGC-NET

UGC NET Entrance Exam is conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) to determine the eligibility of the candidates for Assistant Professor and Junior Research Fellowship and Assistant Professor in academic institutions in India. UGC-NET is conducted for 84 subjects. After qualifying for this exam and completing your P.h.D, you will be qualified to work with UGC coordinating institutes. It is a computer-based test.

Admissions through CSIR NET - For Science Subjects

CSIR NET entrance exam is conducted by the  Council of Scientific and Industrial Research to determine the eligibility of the candidates for JRF (Junior Research Fellowship) and Lectureship (Assistant Professor) in the Indian Institutions.

This exam is conducted for 5 subjects of the Science stream which are Chemical Science, Life Science, Earth Science, Mathematical Science, and Physical Science. You can choose any of these subjects for the exam.

Candidates who are interested to pursue their Ph.D. in any Science subject should appear in the CSIR NET entrance exam. It is a pen-paper mode exam conducted offline.

Admission Through GATE- For Engineering & Technology Subjects

Candidates seeking admission to P.h.D in an engineering specialization are required to present a valid GATE score. Graduate Aptitude Test is a national-level entrance exam conducted by IITs to check the comprehensive knowledge of candidates and for providing admissions to Masters's and Doctoral degree courses in engineering and technology.

PhD Entrance Exams 2022

Entrance Exam Registration Date Exam Date
CSIR UGC NET To be announced September 2022
UGC NET April 30 – May 30, 2022 July 9 – July 12, 2022, and August 12 – August 14, 2022
IIT JAM August 25 - October 14, 2021 February 13, 2022
GPAT February 16 – March 17, 2022 April 9, 2022
VITMEE March 1 – May 20, 2022 June 4 and June 5, 2022

Types of Ph.D. Courses

There are 2 types of PhD offered by Universities in India, They are Full-time and Part-time P.h.D courses.

Full-time P.h.D

It is a regular P.h.D course offered by many universities in India. The duration of a full-time Ph.D. course is 3 years to 6 years depending on the university offering it and on the candidate pursuing the course. The average course fee of a full-time P.h.D course ranges from Rs 35,000 to Rs 1 Lac annually.

In a full-time Ph.D. course, students are responsible for conducting their research on their own with a whole focus on concentration on the Doctor of Philosophy specialization. A student who is pursuing a Ph.D. degree can also act as a teaching assistant to various professors in their college department.

List of Top PhD College (Full-Time)

  • IIT Bombay
  • IISc Bangalore
  • IIT Delhi
  • IIT Chennai
  • University of Delhi
  • Jawaharlal Nehru University
  • Jamia Milia Islamia University
  • University of Hyderabad
  • Indian Statistical Institute
  • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

Part-Time PhD

  • There are many universities that offer part-time P.h.D programs to students who are working in reputed research organizations, academic institutions, and top-notch companies located in close proximity to the college campus,
  • Usually, a candidate takes 5 to 8 years to complete a part-time P.h.D course, the duration of the part-time P.h.D course is longer because the student has to achieve the same no. of credits and fulfill the same requirements as full-time students and it takes them more than usual time to do so.
  • Students who are pursuing a P.h.D attend a limited no. of classes.
  • Candidates who are applying for a part-time P.h.D are required to have a work experience of atleast 1 year and also have to obtain a No Objection Certificate from their current employer.
  • Part-time P.h.D mainly focuses on the research of the development of a company and not on the individual research work.

Candidates who seek admission under a part-time research scholars program at an institute will be offered admission under the below-mentioned categories:

  • Research Assistants
  • Project Staff
  • External Sponsored Candidates
  • Institute staff/ Faculty
  • Online PhD

A PhD, or Doctor of Philosophy, is a postgraduate degree that many universities award. It is the highest academic degree available in a given field. A Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) is a post-graduate degree offered by a university's business school or business faculty.

Completing an Online PhD or Online DBA can lead to significantly improved career opportunities. A Ph.D. or a DBA degree can provide an advantage or be required for students or professionals interested in leadership, academia, consulting, research, and entrepreneurship.

Fully Funded Ph.D. Programs

There are many government research and fellowship programs that fund the P.h.D research of the students. To avail benefits of these funded schemes, the candidates have to obtain qualifying marks in the NET entrance exam that guarantees a stipend from the Government of India.

A scholarship amount of Rs 31,000 monthly is awarded to the NET qualifying candidate by the Central Government.

Scholarship Name Institution
Prime Minister’s Research Fellowship (PMRF) MHRD, Government of India
CSIR-UGC JRF Fellowship Government of India
DBT-JRF Fellowship Government of India
FITM – AYUSH Research Fellowships Scheme Forum on Indian Traditional Medicine (FITM) and Ministry of Ayush
SAARC Agricultural PhD Scholarships SAAR Agricultural Centre
Swami Vivekananda Single Child Scholarship for Research in Social Science UGC
ESSO-NCESS Junior Research Fellowship ESSO- National Centre for Earth Science Studies
Vision India Foundation (VIF) Fellowship Vision India Foundation (VIF)
Burning Questions Fellowship Awards Tiny Beam Fund
Google PhD Scholarships Google
Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund Scholarships Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund
ICHR Junior Research Fellowships (JRF) Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR)

PhD Specializations

Popular PhD Courses in Humanities
PhD in Humanities PhD Economics PhD Geography
PhD in Social Work PhD in English PhD in Social Sciences
PhD in Public and Economic Policy PhD in Humanities & Social Sciences PhD in Humanities and Life Sciences
PhD in Psychology PhD in Arts PhD in International Relations and Politics
PhD in Physiology PhD in Public Policy PhD in Literature
Popular PhD Courses in Science
PhD in Chemistry PhD in Clinical Research PhD in Science
PhD in Bioscience PhD in Bioinformatics PhD Biotechnology
PhD in Mathematical and Computational Sciences PhD in Environmental Science and Engineering PhD in Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology
PhD in Applied Sciences PhD Zoology PhD in Physics
PhD in Basic and Applied Sciences Phd in Mathematics PhD in Zoology
Popular PhD Courses in Commerce
PhD in Commerce Management PhD in Accounting and Financial Management -
Popular PhD Courses in Engineering
PhD in Engineering PhD in Genetic Engineering PhD in Civil Engineering
PhD Program in Quantitative Techniques PhD in Engineering and Technology PhD Electronics & Communication Engineering
PhD Computer Science Engineering PhD in Electronics and Communication Engineering PhD in Aeronautical and Automobile Engineering
PhD in Information Technology PhD in Ceramic Engineering PhD in Production Engineering
PhD in Marine Biotechnology PhD in Chemical Engineering PhD in Mechanical Engineering
Popular PhD Courses in Business & Management
PhD Business Administration PhD in Management PhD in Aviation Management
PhD in Logistics and Supply Chain Management PhD in Accounting and Financial Management PhD in Marketing/ Brand Management
PhD in Commerce PhD in Commerce and Management -
Popular PhD Courses in Law
PhD in Law PhD in Constitutional Law PhD in Law and Governance
PhD in Legal Studies - -
Popular PhD Courses in Teaching & Education
PhD in Education PhD in Teaching -

Top PhD Colleges in India - Private

  1. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore
  2. Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal
  3. Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore 
  4. Anna University, Chennai
  5. Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala
  6. S.R.M. Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai
  7. Shanmugha Arts Science Technology & Research Academy, Thanjavur

PhD Course Fee 2022

QS India University Rankings 2020 College Name Fees (Rs)
1 Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) Rs 58,200
2 Indian Institute of Science Rs 35,200
3 Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD) Rs 42,900
4 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM) Rs 19,670
5 Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IIT-KGP) Rs 50,000
6 Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK) Rs 64,050
7 University of Delhi -
8 University of Hyderabad Rs 8,980
9 Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IITR) Rs 28,500
10 Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG) Rs 18,150

Top PhD Government Colleges

College Name Fees (Rs)
JNU Rs 1391
DIPSAR Rs 30,385
NIT Durgapur Rs 64,100
Jai Narayan Vyas University Rs 10,000
BHU Rs 10,000
Jamia Millia Islamia Rs 15,000
Aligarh Muslim University Rs 10,000
Calcutta University Rs 14,000
Jadavpur University Rs 12,000
Institute of Advanced Study in Education Rs 3,116

Top PhD Private Colleges

College Name Fees (Rs)
VIT Rs 53,000
Bombay College of Pharmacy Rs 1,50,850
Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education Rs 25,000
IFHE Hyderabad Rs 1,20,000
IIIT-B Rs 1,07,000
Manipal Academy of Higher Education Rs 59,000
PRIST University Rs 30,000
DA-IICT Rs 65,000
JRNRVU Rs 30,000
BVIMSR Rs 75,000

Top PhD Colleges in Mumbai

College Name Fees (Rs)
Bombay College of Pharmacy Rs 1,50,850
VJTI Rs 81,500
Jai Hind College Rs 23,377
RICS SBE Rs 2,50,000
Marine Engineering and Research Institute Rs 40,000
Dr Ambedkar College of Commerce and Economics Rs 14,920
JRNRVU Rs 30,000
PRIST University Rs 30,000
DA-IICT Rs 65,000
BVIMSR Rs 75,000

Top PhD Colleges in Kolkata

College Name Fees (Rs)
University of Calcutta Rs 25,000
Jadavpur University Rs 24,000
Techno India University Rs 65,000
Adamas University Rs 2,14,000
Presidency University Rs 2,24,000
Aliah University Rs 1,68,000
JIS University Rs 4,50,000
Amity University Rs 5,30,000
Rabindra Bharati University Rs 70,000
Kalyani University Rs 53,000

Top PhD Colleges in Chennai

College Name Fees (Rs)
Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education Rs 25,000
Anna University Rs 14,900
Sri Ramachandra Medical College Rs 25,000
IRS Rs 14,900
JRNRVU Rs 30,000

Top PhD Colleges in Bangalore

College Name Fees (Rs)
IIIT-B Rs 1,07,000
BBBC&S Rs 56,000
South Asia Institute of Advanced Christian Studies Rs 36,000
BMS School of Architecture Rs 25,000
The University of Trans-disciplinary Health Sciences and Technology Rs 35,000

Top PhD Colleges in Delhi

College Name Fees (Rs)
IIT-Delhi Rs 1,91,000
National Law University Rs 1,18,000
Faculty of Management Studies Rs 52,400
IIFT Rs 4,00,000
DIPSAR Rs 20,500
NSIT Rs 1,71,000
NIT Delhi Rs 1,10,000
Jamia Hamdard Rs 1,28,000
USICT Rs 3,00,000
JIMS Rs 80,000

Why Pursue a PhD Degree?

Are you making up your mind to pursue a Ph.D. but still doubtful about making this decision?

Here are some reasons why you should pursue a PhD:

  • During your P.h.D course, you will be able to research the topics and subjects you are passionate about and will be able to learn new things about your field of study.

  • A P.h.D course allows you to choose your research topic as per your interest. You can choose any topic relevant to your P.h.D specialization. 

  • After or during your Ph.D. course, you will be able to find better career prospects. It can unlock the doors of many lucrative career opportunities for you especially if you want to pursue your career in a professorship or research and development field, 

  • The Indian government has reduced the tax incentive for firms engaged in R&D, which is consistent with the previous UNESCO Science Report's findings (2015).

  • As a P.h.D degree holder, you will gain the title of Doctor, having this title is something which is highly valued in society, hence you will attain respect and recognition. 

  • Gross R&D expenditure (GERD) in the country has nearly tripled over the years, rising from INR 39,437.77 crore in 2007-08 to INR 1,13,825.03 crore in 2017-18. In 2018-19, it was expected to be INR 1,23,847.70 crore. These figures justify the scope and demand of P.h.D holders in the research and development field. 

  • Researchers are required in almost every sector; hence, you can work in your industry by using your knowledge, findings, and research skills. 

Skill Sets Required for Ph.D.

The main objective of the Ph.D. program is to develop researchers who are qualified to undertake the challenges during their research and help in the betterment of society. A person cannot become a researcher without a properly documented record of actual research.

The other important objective of a P.h.D course is to impart and extend in-depth subject/topic knowledge to the candidate. The P.h.D scholar attains the knowledge himself under the guidance of his/her supervisor.

To become a sound researcher, the aspirant doesn't only need good subject knowledge but also requires to possess certain skills that can help them to conduct more properly documented and useful research.

Below we have mentioned the names of certain skills and qualities required to become a successful Ph.D. Scholar:

  • Academic Ability
  • Accountability
  • Persistence
  • Verbal Communication Skills
  • Time Management
  • Inquisitiveness
  • Critical Thinking
  • Reading Habit
  • Written Communication
  • Interpersonal Skills
  • Project Management
  • Collaboration

P.h.D Course: Overview

  • After getting admission to P.h.D course, the candidate requires to submit their Research Topic along with their Research Proposal at their respective college/university.
  • Once their Research Topic is approved, you will be allocated with their Research supervisor/guide by your educational institution.
  • Candidates will be provided with the research procedure information such as Course work, evaluation methodology, and teaching timetable by their research program guide/supervisor/coordinator.
  • Once the research work starts, some institutions ask their students to submit a 6-month progress report of their research work.
  • Moreover, the P.h.D students also have to present atleast two seminar presentations as a part of their P.h.D curriculum, and thereafter they may also be required to submit a Certificate of the same to the Research unit.
  • Before the final submission of their research thesis, the candidate's supervisor/guide organizes a pre-submission seminar which is open to all the students and guides. After this seminar, a report will be made which consists of the suggestions for improvement, and the supervisor/guide is responsible to ensure that the scholar incorporates and acknowledge all these suggestions in his/her research thesis.
  • Afterward, the candidate will have to incorporate all the suggestions and changes into his/her thesis and then submit a summary of their research to the supervisor. The candidate will have to submit this summary atleast 45 days prior to the final submission of the thesis.
  • After this, Candidates can submit their final in hard copy and soft copy. Once submitted, your thesis will be checked by external experts. You might be suggested to make some modifications to your research paper, in this case, you will have to edit your thesis with the required modifications and re-submit the thesis.
  • Finally and of utmost importance, the candidate has to appear in a viva round where they will have to justify and defend their research by presenting their perspectives in front of a panel of experts.  
  • Candidates who will succeed to complete all the above-mentioned steps will be awarded a P.h.D degree.

How to do PhD?

P.h.D is a prestigious degree, many aspirants look forward to pursuing it after their postgraduation, but many don't know how to do a Ph.D.? If you are also looking for the answer, here's a 5 step guide to applying for a P.h.D program:

  • Visit the official website of your desired college/university from where you want to pursue your course, and check out the course details and eligibility. Check out if the institute offers the field you are interested in. 

  • Once, the application process for the P.h.D program starts, fill out the application form and pay the application fee. furthermore, ensure that you submit all the required documents in the correct format whether it is an online application or offline. Please note that the application windows are opened 4-5 months before the commencement of the course cycle. 

  • Applicants may also need to submit a research proposal and research topic along with their application form. The application forms of all the applicants, along with their research proposals, are submitted to the Educational Institute's Research Unit, where they are reviewed and only a few of them are selected. 

  • Once the scrutiny of all the application forms gets completed, the candidates are shortlisted and a list of shortlisted candidates is released by the institute. The shortlisted candidates will have to appear in the entrance exam and other selection rounds conducted by the institutions.

  • Based on the results of the entrance exam and other selection rounds (Personal Interview, Group Discussion), the institute releases a final list of the candidates selected for PhD admissions. 

  • Once the admission is confirmed and fees are paid by the candidate, he/she is allotted a research supervisor/guide who mentors the candidate from time to time during the research tenure.

Career Scope After PhD

As we have already mentioned, P.h.D is the highest level of academic qualification. One has to engage in extensive research procedures to attain this degree. Despite the difficulty level and long years of research, This degree opens numerous doors of opportunities for you.

Usually, most Ph.D. scholars prefer to build a career in Academia and private Research and Development companies but there are certain other job options available for them.

Below we have explained the scope of a Ph.D. in various fields:

  1. Academics

Many candidates pursue a Ph.D. as they wish to enter the world of academia. A Ph.D. degree is best for candidates who wish to pursue their careers as lecturers, teachers, and professors in colleges and universities.

A career in academia involves teaching, preparing presentations, conducting academic research, managing administration, etc. A career as a teacher or professor is one of the most sought-after career fields as it offers handsome salary packages, job security, and a perfect work-life balance.

  1. Consultant

Ph.D. holders are highly valued in consultancy firms. Most of the time Consultants are required to maintain large amounts of data. So many consultancy firms have started hiring Ph.D. holders, so they can get a 360-degree view of the problem and find modern yet effective solutions of the same.

The idea is to use valuable data to gain useful insights and thus empower business decision-making. As a result, if you have a Ph.D., consulting is a prominent job opportunity that can be extremely rewarding.

  1. Research Associate

To begin with, in your market research, you can work as a research associate in an R&D department of a company or a research institution. As a research associate, you will have to segregate the data to determine whether the customers or clients are finding the company's product or service satisfactory or not.

In a corporate research career, your study and findings will be put to more use in order to drive outcomes, this will eventually provide you with job satisfaction and rewarding remuneration. Academic research on the other hand feels monotonous sometimes.

  1. Government Jobs

There are many government departments that are always interested in hiring Ph.D. holders to conduct research for them. If you wish to work in the government sector and want to put your research skills to some good use, then you can start your career in military research or you can also apply for various policymaker positions in state and central government.

P.h.D holders have a unique perspective to find the root cause of the problems and make practical, diplomatic choices to resolve the issue and therefore government sectors prefer Ph.D. holders to work for them.

  1. Product Manager

After obtaining your Ph.D. degree, you can apply for the position of Product Manager. This job requires managing and handling end-to-end tasks related to product development, distribution, and promotion.

They are responsible for managing the product for its entire life cycle, since the job requires multi-tasking and a keen eye to oversee the product performance and building marketing strategies, P.h.D holders are considered best for this job.

  1. Research Writers

Research writers conduct in-depth research to find complex information and transform it into lay terminology. Usually, research writers are required to conduct extensive research based on various topics suggested by the clients and they may have to write keyword-based articles for SEO.

There are many Digital media companies that hire research writers to work for their clients and on in-house projects. P.h.D holders have outstanding research skills and good written communication, therefore they are highly suited for the job of a research writer.

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