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Scope of Sociology

Update on 2024-04-15

Scope of Sociology 2024: Overview, Scope, Views, Schools of Thoughts, Focus Areas

Sociology is a social science that studies human society, its behavior, development, and organization. It is a discipline that aims to understand how social structures, institutions, and interactions shape and influence human behavior.

Sociology is a constantly evolving field that adapts to changing social circumstances and developments. In this article, we will explore the scope of sociology in 2024, including an overview, schools of thought, focus areas, and different views on the subject.

Scope of Sociology: Overview

Sociology is a broad and interdisciplinary field that encompasses a wide range of topics, including social stratification, social inequality, race, gender, culture, politics, religion, education, and many others. It uses various research methods, such as surveys, interviews, case studies, and statistical analysis, to examine social phenomena and generate new knowledge.

Sociology has its roots in the 19th century and has since undergone several phases of development. The classical sociological tradition, which includes the works of Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim, laid the foundation for the field. They developed theories and concepts that explained social phenomena, such as social class, bureaucracy, and social solidarity.

The contemporary sociological tradition builds on the classical tradition and expands it to include new topics and approaches. Some of the key areas of research in sociology today include globalization, urbanization, digital technologies, and environmental issues.

  • Schools of Thought

Sociology has several schools of thought, each with its unique perspective on the subject. Some of the major schools of thought in sociology include:

  • Structural Functionalism

Structural functionalism is a theoretical perspective that sees society as a complex system made up of interdependent parts that work together to maintain social stability and order. It emphasizes the functional aspects of social institutions and how they contribute to the overall well-being of society.

  • Conflict Theory

Conflict theory is a theoretical perspective that sees society as a competition for limited resources, power, and status. It emphasizes the role of conflict and inequality in shaping social relations and institutions.

  • Social Constructionism

Social constructionism is a theoretical perspective that sees society as a product of human interaction and interpretation. It emphasizes the role of language, symbols, and culture in shaping social reality.

Focus Areas of Sociology

Sociology covers a wide range of topics, and different scholars have different areas of focus.

Some of the key focus areas in sociology include:

  • Social Stratification

Social stratification refers to the division of society into different social classes based on factors such as income, occupation, education, and social status. Sociologists study how social stratification affects people's lives and opportunities and how it contributes to social inequality.

  • Gender and Sexuality

Gender and sexuality refer to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, and expectations associated with being male or female. Sociologists study how gender and sexuality shape people's lives and how they are influenced by social, cultural, and historical factors.

  • Race and Ethnicity

Race and ethnicity refer to social categories based on physical and cultural characteristics. Sociologists study how race and ethnicity affect people's lives and opportunities and how they are influenced by social, cultural, and historical factors.

Views on Sociology

Sociology has been subject to different views and criticisms over the years.

Some of the major views on sociology include:

  • Positive View: The positive view of sociology sees it as a valuable discipline that generates new knowledge and helps us understand and solve social problems.


the scope of sociology in 2024 is likely to be wide-ranging and dynamic, reflecting the diverse and complex nature of contemporary society. Sociology will continue to play a vital role in helping us understand and address social issues and challenges, such as inequality, globalization, digital technologies, and environmental sustainability.

The field of sociology will continue to evolve, with new schools of thought, theoretical frameworks, and research methods emerging to address new and emerging social phenomena. At the same time, sociology will remain an interdisciplinary field, engaging with other disciplines and perspectives to develop a more holistic understanding of society and its complexities.

Overall, the scope of sociology in 2024 is likely to be exciting and full of opportunities for those who are passionate about understanding and improving society. By embracing diverse perspectives, engaging in rigorous empirical research, and applying sociological theories and concepts to real-world problems, sociologists will continue to make valuable contributions to society and help shape a more just and equitable world.

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